Word Studies on 2 Thessalonians 2


This is what we were to do this week for Precepts bible study, look up these words, the Greek meaning and definitions, verb tense and mood. Since I have to do it anyway and print it out, I will type up a post for you, also. (Just in case you are interested) )

2 Thessalonians 2
The Man of Lawlessness
1Concerning the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ and our being gathered to him, we ask you, brothers,

2not to become easily unsettled or alarmed by some prophecy, report or letter supposed to have come from us, saying that the day of the Lord has already come.

3Don’t let anyone deceive you in any way, for (that day will not come) until the rebellion occurs and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the man doomed to destruction.

4He will oppose and will exalt himself over everything that is called God or is worshiped, so that he sets himself up in God’s temple, proclaiming himself to be God.

5Don’t you remember that when I was with you I used to tell you these things?

6And now you know what is holding him back, so that he may be revealed at the proper time.

7For the secret power of lawlessness is already at work; but the one who now holds it back will continue to do so till he is taken out of the way.

8And then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus will overthrow with the breath of his mouth and destroy by the splendor of his coming.

9The coming of the lawless one will be in accordance with the work of Satan displayed in all kinds of counterfeit miracles, signs and wonders,

10and in every sort of evil that deceives those who are perishing. They perish because they refused to love the truth and so be saved.

11For this reason God sends them a powerful delusion so that they will believe the lie

12and so that all will be condemned who have not believed the truth but have delighted in wickedness.


Strong’s Number: 3952 parousiða
Original Word Word Origin
parousiða from the present participle of (3918)
Transliterated Word Phonetic Spelling
Parousia par-oo-see’-ah
Parts of Speech TDNT
Noun Feminine 5:858,791
the coming, arrival, advent
the future visible return from heaven of Jesus, to raise the dead, hold the last judgment, and set up formally and gloriously the kingdom of God

*parousia is connected with the 2nd coming of Christ, the parousia corresponds w/the apokalupsis of the son of man.

* the 2 expressions are used interchangeably in 2 Thess. 2:1-2

Gathering together

Strong’s Number: 1997 eÍpisunagwgh/
Original Word Word Origin
eÍpisunagwgh/ from (1996)
Transliterated Word Phonetic Spelling
Episunagoge ep-ee-soon-ag-o-gay’
Parts of Speech TDNT
Noun Feminine 7:841,1107
a gathering together in one place
the (religious) assembly (of Christians)

* a being gathered tog.


Strong’s Number: 646 a)postasiða
Original Word Word Origin
a)postasiða feminine of the same as (647)
Transliterated Word Phonetic Spelling
Apostasia ap-os-tas-ee’-ah
Parts of Speech TDNT
Noun Feminine 1:513,88
a falling away, defection, apostasy

I thought this of very interesting!

**person does not depart from where he is, to go somewhere else, but stays away, haven chosen from the beginning to stay away, not to believe, instead of believing.

those who reject Christ not Christians who depart from the faith

lawlessness, lawless

Strong’s Number: 458 a)nomiða
Original Word Word Origin
a)nomiða from (459)
Transliterated Word Phonetic Spelling
Anomia an-om-ee’-ah
Parts of Speech TDNT
Noun Feminine 4:1085,646
the condition of without law
because ignorant of it
because of violating it
contempt and violation of law, iniquity, wickedness

*transgression of the law


Strong’s Number: 684 a)pwñleia
Original Word Word Origin
a)pwñleia from a presumed derivative of (622)
Transliterated Word Phonetic Spelling
Apoleia ap-o’-li-a
Parts of Speech TDNT
Noun Feminine 1:396,67
destroying, utter destruction
of vessels
a perishing, ruin, destruction
of money
the destruction which consists of eternal misery in hell

*destruction either temporal or eternal

*state after death where in exclusion from salvation is realized (interesting!)


Strong’s Number: 601 a)pokalu/ptw
Original Word Word Origin
a)pokalu/ptw from (575) and (2572)
Transliterated Word Phonetic Spelling
Apokalupto ap-ok-al-oop’-to
Parts of Speech TDNT
Verb 3:563,405
to uncover, lay open what has been veiled or covered up
disclose, make bare
to make known, make manifest, disclose what before was unknown

* to make manifest or reveal a thing previously secret or unknown.


Strong’s Number: 2722 katerga/zomai
Original Word Word Origin
katerga/zomai from (2596) and (2192)
Transliterated Word Phonetic Spelling
Katecho kat-ekh’-o
Parts of Speech TDNT
Verb 2:829,286
to hold back, detain, retain
from going away
to restrain, hinder (the course or progress of)
that which hinders, Antichrist from making his appearance
to check a ship’s headway i.e. to hold or head the ship
to hold fast, keep secure, keep firm possession of
to get possession of, take
to possess


Strong’s Number: 3466 musth/rion
Original Word Word Origin
musth/rion from a derivative of muo (to shut the mouth)
Transliterated Word Phonetic Spelling
Musterion moos-tay’-ree-on
Parts of Speech TDNT
Noun Neuter 4:802,615
hidden thing, secret, mystery
generally mysteries, religious secrets, confided only to the initiated and not to ordinary mortals
a hidden or secret thing, not obvious to the understanding
a hidden purpose or counsel
secret will 1c
of men 1c
of God: the secret counsels which govern God in dealing with the righteous, which are hidden from ungodly and wicked men but plain to the godly
in rabbinic writings, it denotes the mystic or hidden sense
of an OT saying
of an image or form seen in a vision
of a dream

*denotes in general something hidden or not fully manifest

*2 Thess – speaks of the ‘mystery of lawlessness’ which began to work in secret but was not then completely disclosed or manifested


Strong’s Number: 2919 kriðnw
Original Word Word Origin
kriðnw perhaps a primitive word
Transliterated Word Phonetic Spelling
Krino kree’-no
Parts of Speech TDNT
Verb 3:921,469
to separate, put asunder, to pick out, select, choose
to approve, esteem, to prefer
to be of opinion, deem, think, to be of opinion
to determine, resolve, decree
to judge
to pronounce an opinion concerning right and wrong
to be judged, i.e. summoned to trial that one’s case may be examined and judgment passed upon it
to pronounce judgment, to subject to censure
of those who act the part of judges or arbiters in matters of common life, or pass judgment on the deeds and words of others
to rule, govern
to preside over with the power of giving judicial decisions, because it was the prerogative of kings and rulers to pass judgment
to contend together, of warriors and combatants
to dispute
in a forensic sense
to go to law, have suit at law

*to divide, separate, make a distinction, come to a decision


I’m gonna focus on Apostasy for a minute, I’m intriqued by that word;

the same word for apostasy is – forsake and is in Acts

Ac 21:21 –
and they have been told about you, that you are teaching all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise their children nor to walk according to the customs.

In Old Test.

there are two passages with apostasy

Jer 8:5 –
“Why then has this people, Jerusalem, Turned away in continual apostasy? They hold fast to deceit, They refuse to return.

Ho 14:4 –
I will heal their apostasy, I will love them freely, For My anger has turned away from them.

Strong’s Number: 4878 hbw#m
Original Word Word Origin
hbw#m from (07725)
Transliterated Word Phonetic Spelling
M@shuwbah mesh-oo-baw’
Parts of Speech TWOT
Noun Feminine 2340c
turning away, turning back, apostasy, backsliding

The Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia

The Apostasy

Its Cause. The marriage of the sons of God and the daughters of Men (Genesis 6:1,2).

Its Effect on the Human Race. Men forgot God and became giants In wickedness (Genesis 6:3,4).

Its Effect on the Creator. “And the LORD repented that he had Made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart” (Genesis 6:6). The word “repent” always describes a change in something. There is a sense In which God cannot change (Matthew 3:9; James 1:17).

He is always God, omnipotent and eternal. There is a sense in which He changes His Purposes toward us, otherwise forgiveness would be impossible (Jeremiah 31:34; Hebrews 8:12). God has declared that the soul that sins shall die (Ezekiel 18:4), but the sinner who turns from his sins and obeys the Lord, has the promise of salvation (2 Peter 3:9).

God therefore changes His purposes toward men, but He is always God!


The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

a-pos’-ta-si, a-pos’-tat (he apostasia, “a standing away from”):

I.e. a falling away, a withdrawal, a defection. Not found in the English Versions of the Bible, but used twice in the New Testament, in the Greek original, to express abandonment of the faith. Paul was falsely accused of teaching the Jews apostasy from Moses (Acts 21:21); he predicted the great apostasy from Christianity, foretold by Jesus (Matthew 24:10-12) which would precede “the day of the Lord” (2 Thessalonians 2:2). Apostasy, not in name but in fact, meets scathing rebuke in the Epistle of Jude, e.g. the apostasy of angels (Jude 1:6).

Foretold, with warnings, as sure to abound in the latter days (1 Timothy 4:1-3; 2 Thessalonians 2:3; 2 Peter 3:17). Causes of: persecution (Matthew 24:9,10); false teachers (Matthew 24:11); temptation (Luke 8:13); worldliness (2 Timothy 4:4); defective knowledge of Christ (1John 2:19); moral lapse (Hebrews 6:4-6); forsaking worship and spiritual living (Hebrews 10:25-31); unbelief (Hebrews 3:12). Biblical examples: Saul (1 Samuel 15:11); Amaziah (2 Chronicles 25:14,27); many disciples (John 6:66); Hymeneus and Alexander (1 Timothy 1:19,20); Demas (2 Timothy 4:10). For further illustration see Deuteronomy 13:13; Zec 1:4-6; Galatians 5:4; 2 Peter 2:20,21.

“Forsaking Yahweh” was the characteristic and oft-recurring sin of the chosen people, especially in their contact with idolatrous nations. It constituted their supreme national peril. The tendency appeared in their earliest history, as abundantly seen in the warnings and prohibitions of the laws of Moses (Exodus 20:3,4,23; Deuteronomy 6:14; 11:16).

The fearful consequences of religious and moral apostasy appear in the curses pronounced against this sin, on Mount Ebal, by the representatives of six of the tribes of Israel, elected by Moses (Deuteronomy 27:13-26; 28:15-68). So wayward was the heart of Israel, even in the years immediately following the national emancipation, in the wilderness, that Joshua found it necessary to re-pledge the entire nation to a new fidelity to Yahweh and to their original covenant before they were permitted to enter the Promised Land (Joshua 24:1-28).

Infidelity to this covenant blighted the nation’s prospects and growth during the time of the Judges (Judges 2:11-15; 10:6,10,13; 1 Samuel 12:10). It was the cause of prolific and ever-increasing evil, civic and moral, from Solomon’s day to the Assyrian and Babylonian captivities. Many of the kings of the divided kingdom apostatized, leading the people, as in the case of Rehoboam, into the grossest forms of idolatry and immorality (1 Kings 14:22-24; 2 Chronicles 12:1). Conspicuous examples of such royal apostasy are Jeroboam (1 Kings 12:28-32); Ahab (1 Kings 16:30-33); Ahaziah (1 Kings 22:51-53); Jehoram (2 Chronicles 21:6,10,12-15); Ahaz (2 Chronicles 28:1-4); Manasseh (2 Chronicles 33:1-9); Amen (2 Chronicles 33:22). See IDOLATRY.

Prophecy originated as a Divine and imperative protest against this historic tendency to defection from the religion of Yahweh. In classical Greek, apostasy signified revolt from a military commander. In the roman catholic church it denotes abandonment of religious orders; renunciation of ecclesiastical authority; defection from the faith.

The persecutions of the early Christian centuries forced many to deny Christian discipleship and to signify their apostasy by offering incense to a heathen deity or blaspheming the name of Christ. The emperor Julian, who probably never vitally embraced the Christian faith, is known in history as “the Apostate,” having renounced Christianity for paganism soon after his accession to the throne. An apostate’s defection from the faith may be intellectual, as in the case of Ernst Haeckel, who, because of his materialistic philosophy, publicly and formally renounced Christianity and the church; or it may be moral and spiritual, as with Judas, who for filthy lucre’s sake basely betrayed his Lord. See exhaustive articles on “Apostasy” in the Jewish Encyclopedia.

Dwight M. Pratt


Nave’s Topica Bible here


Ok, is it just me or does something just pop right out at ya here…

Book of John
Chapter 6 – 6:66 – As a result of this many of His disciples withdrew R477 and were not walking with Him anymore.



Matthew Henry concise comm.

Verses 1-4 If errors arise among Christians, we should set them right; and good men will be careful to suppress errors which rise from mistaking their words and actions. We have a cunning adversary, who watches to do mischief, and will promote errors, even by the words of Scripture. Whatever uncertainty we are in, or whatever mistakes may arise about the time of Christ’s coming, that coming itself is certain.

This has been the faith and hope of all Christians, in all ages of the church; it was the faith and hope of the Old Testament saints. All believers shall be gathered together to Christ, to be with him, and to be happy in his presence for ever. We should firmly believe the second coming of Christ; but there was danger lest the Thessalonians, being mistaken as to the time, should question the truth or certainty of the thing itself.

False doctrines are like the winds that toss the water to and fro; and they unsettle the minds of men, which are as unstable as water. It is enough for us to know that our Lord will come, and will gather all his saints unto him. A reason why they should not expect the coming of Christ, as at hand, is given.

There would be a general falling away first, such as would occasion the rise of antichrist, that man of sin. There have been great disputes who or what is intended by this man of sin and son of perdition. The man of sin not only practises wickedness, but also promotes and commands sin and wickedness in others; and is the son of perdition, because he is devoted to certain destruction, and is the instrument to destroy many others, both in soul and body.

As God was in the temple of old, and worshipped there, and is in and with his church now; so the antichrist here mentioned, is a usurper of God’s authority in the Christian church, who claims Divine honours.

So, the question here, is apostasy a Christian who falls away, or an un-believer who chose never to believe to begin with?

Who maybe was sitting in with the flock, but when hard times, end times, come, they leave?


Blessings on your day, brethren!


About Kristina

54 year old Christian lady, knitter, crafter, church admin, thrill seeker (only when shopping at thrift stores for tremendous bargains) my 4 dogs and my pigs servant, a child of God, saved, redeemed and trying to be joyful in a fallen world.

18 responses »

  1. [From memory, so Agathos if I need help here, correct me.]

    William Wordsworth’s brother Christopher (I believe) wrote up an interesting study of this passage in the 19th century. I have a reprinted copy somewhere but, alas, I was unable to find it online.

    He goes through the particular verses here describing the “Man of Lawlessness” and parallels them with the Papal ordination.

    Until around the 1950’s (100 or so years after Wordsworth’s writing) it was widely held by Protestants the Roman church was the continuation of Roman rule of the world with the Papal system being “the secret power of lawlessness” and eventually a Pope will arise who is “The” Antichrist, i.e.: The Man of Lawlessness.

    Biblically this is supported by a number of prophetic passages.

    To a greater or lesser extent I still believe this to be true. Right now the Papal system has huge control and its traditions mark even the Protestant churches. More widely the institutional church (which I believe is an outgrowth of pagan Roman rites) holds to many Papal decrees where there is no Biblical support.

    Some of these rites have become central to the institutional church: Sunday worship; Communion; Infant Baptism; Clergy; “Temples” of worship; works for salvation and penance.

    I would also add this about “falling away”:

    John 6 is a great picture of how those who followed Jesus were, in the majority, not believers, though you get the idea they would have considered themselves such. Even Judas, in John 13, is pictured as an unbeliever.

    Tying in Matthew 13’s parables of the Kingdom we see the Kingdom of God as often looking visibly much more vast than it truly is. Many who see themselves as part of the Kingdom are unknown to the Father (Matt. 7)

    You guys can check this out for yourselves, but IM(not so)HO I believe it is strongly supported scripturally as well as historically.

  2. total tranny, this was a lot of cut and paste.
    im working on a concise reason why we should look up tenses and moods and voice for greek, its an overwhelming task, may have to do a separate post.
    just know that –
    if it says ‘love’ thy neighbor, the verb love, its important to know the tense, is it a continious (spelling?) action, did it happen in the past, now, future?
    i’m working on, tho!

  3. i agree with kevin/the apostasy or falling away is directed toward unbelievers, whether in the fold or not and when the ‘end times’ hit, they will be a great or greater number of people running from the truth of God to the man of lawlessness
    signs and wonders, 2 thess 2 verses 4-10.
    as for the lawless one, i think it will be a man. A pope, not so sure, but smarter people than me study the Word to know. i dont know if i would essentially agree w/kevin or not about the pope thing, would need to study more. Also if the texts are to be taken literal, it will happen in jerusalem, in a temple, on a throne.
    more to come…..

  4. “its important to know the tense, is it a continious (continuous – spelling?) action, did it happen in the past, now, future”

    Kris, if I can save you some time… as a student of Koine Greek (I have studied this subject intimately and intensely for two years) trust me there is no argument weaker than that of Grammar. It is so weak it is almost a non-argument.

  5. Well Agathos, great, thanks for saving me time, I needed to cook dinner and take care of my family.
    Also, I might just quit my bible study since learning greek is really, really hard and understanding the bible is really, really hard. And takes lots and lots of schooling….
    ok, I’m being a bit of a smart aleck, a bit.
    Actually I do realize it takes a lot to study greek,and one probably never totally understands it or the bible.
    But I have to do something other than blog to justify my stay at home time.
    Blessings, Kristina

  6. Please, please, please, please, please, please, please, please, please, please, please, please… In no way am I trying to dissuade you from studying the Greek. Just understand that most people will use terms like continuous, and perfect, and imperative in completely exegetically inappropriate ways.

    Jesus walking by a booth in the Bible is in a continuous verb form… no one supposes he is still continually walking by that booth, but when it comes to other things… that is the danger of grammar exegesis.

    Of course there is a TON of relevant info you can learn from looking at Greek commentaries (though the ones you mention are quite out of fashion) my question only concerns the Grammar.

  7. well, i would have to go back and look up the bible studies i have done
    maybe i should say it helps with tough words, when i do the precepts studies.
    but im assuming i can be wrong about the way my hebrew-greek key word study bible defines the words, also.
    when i get a chance i will go back, any particular reasoning behind this ?.

  8. Here is the bulk of Greek eisegesis I run into, I will use a modern example to make it more understandable:

    I write “I’m going to run to the store”, it becomes Scripture, this is usually what follows.

    “He said he was going to ‘run’ to the store, when you go out do you walk to the store? You shouldn’t be walking you should be running, and not just sometimes but all the time. ‘Run’ here is in the continuous and that means we should be running all of the time. It’s a biblical principle.”

    This is what I mean when I talk about the weakness of most grammatical arguments.

    Seeing as you post so much Scripture and you posted your Greek notes I was wondering about your approach… it interests me how people are interacting with Greek; that is why I asked for examples.

  9. Lest I get myself in even more hot water, I’ve wondered for a long time about the whole “word study” thing. Not because those who don’t know Greek try to understand it, but because of Scott’s example here: Reading more into the text than it was intended to convey.

    There are some troubling passages in scripture where we truly don’t have a clue (like baptism for the dead), but everyone pretty much agrees we don’t have a clue.

    For the others where the meaning is pretty straight-forward there are those (mainly in the clergy) who teach we should granulize every word to squeeze out every nuance as if the words were sponges full of meaning.

    To me most of Christianity is pretty straight forward. Love. That’s about it.

  10. I do a Precept http://www.precept.org study, they ask us to look up look in the orginial language, MOSTLY because they would like us to see the definition of the word and what the word used to mean, if it is considered something differnet in our modern english language.
    We don’t do much of the mood, tense, voice, but in the training programs for these studies they show how to look that sort of stuff up.
    i really dont have a certain text i can remember to tell you as an example, what you see on here is the stuff we look up.
    we are by no means trying to be scholars of the greek/hebrew language, just trying to understand the bible more. Lots of the women in these studies really haven’t learned the basics of the bible, been doing fluffy topical studies or ‘prayer of jabez’ kind of thing. Just learning to read the bible in context is a huge step for them.
    I, by no means, would take that ‘example’ you gave above as ‘gospel’
    meaning i wouldnt think you needed to run all the time or continuely.
    we don’t get that deep into the grammar in our studies.
    the passage we were studying was 2 thess 2 (see above) and when we came tog. to go over notes, we put tog. those words and made a little timeline of sorts about the day of the lord and the lawless one.
    its all observation, interpetation and application in this group study.
    now, the last question was how is knowing all this going to affect the way you witness?
    meaning, how is knowing about end times and the lawless one going to be applied to your life?
    my personal opinion is, once you know your savior and have a relationship with Him, then we can get tog. and discuss these other things, end times, but its not essential to your walk/faith.
    there is a balance to everything and kevin says this:
    ”For the others where the meaning is pretty straight-forward there are those (mainly in the clergy) who teach we should granulize every word to squeeze out every nuance as if the words were sponges full of meaning.

    To me most of Christianity is pretty straight forward. Love. That’s about it.”

    i think there is a middle ground here, yes there is love, and your personal relationship to the Lord, but, just like passover/easter, i wantd to know more about the timelines with it and researched some stuff. Is that going to affect my faith of God? Hasn’t yet. might make me question ‘church’ but not so radically that my faith wavers.
    its interesting to some to know the history behind the jewish leaders of Jesus’s day. Should that affect faith/relationship? no.

  11. “Love” is an oversimplification, but it’s the root of most things Christian. Yes, there is benefit in study, but most of the Bible is pretty straightforward even when we prefer it wasn’t (like directions on when it’s OK to rape women taken as booty or when David is commended for committing genocide.)

    I certainly think the time I have spent studying the Bible has been extremely profitable, and I’m sure your studies are profitable as well, but I think there are many who encourage Christians to define their doctrine via implication. I might be wrong, but I think that’s kinda what Scott was saying with his example.

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